What is hepatitis? Clinical findings, diagnosis, vaccines, and treatment
Hepatitis is major public health problem throughout the world and is produced by different types of viruses. It is the most common suspected clinical diagnosis in patients with abdominal pain with jaundice. Additional symptoms for hepatitis are fever, nausea, vomiting, rash, and arthritis.
Hepatitis is an RNA virus that is classified as a member of the group of picornavirus cap with enterovirus 27 nm. It is isolated in the feces for up to 3 weeks of the disease and starts a week before raising transaminases. The person is contagious until 3 weeks of initiation of disease. Mechanism of transmission from person to person is by fecal oral route (contaminated food and beverages). Incubation period 15 to 50 days, averaging 25 to 30 days.
Predominates in day care (children diaper) and daycare rooms for preschoolers.
Most infections occur through contaminated food and water in endemic areas and travelers.
- Endemic-epidemic. (with buds)
- Underdeveloped countries.
- 80% in children under 5 years.
- No carriers of VHA.
- There are no reservoirs or chronically ill patients
- In utero is not contagious.
- No risk transfusion.
- Not linked to homosexuality.
- Rarely causes fulminant hepatitis.
- In infants and preschool children, the infection is usually asymptomatic or mild symptoms without jaundice.
- Anorexia and malaise.
- Abdominal pain in right flank with hepatomegaly (13 days).
- Nausea or vomiting.
- Intolerance to food.
- Fever with jaundice.
- Elevated transaminases.
- Virus isolation
- Serological tests for anti-HAV IgM specific. This indicates the presence of recent infection (a month-onset of illness), which is replaced by the anti-HAV IgG (2 to 4 months), indicating that it remains indefinitely lasting immunity.
Evolution of disease
- Rarely can we find atypical developments as:
- Cholestatic form: persistent pruritus with jaundice that lasts 4 months.
- Recurrent or recurrent form: more common in adults.
- Fulminant hepatitis: with massive hepatic necrosis and the occurrence of hepatic coma with disappearance of hepatomegaly and appearance of hepatic coma.
- Dealing with Gamma-globulin: 0.02 cc / kg in the contacts or the beginning of the disease.
- Virus, inactivated formaldehyde HVA and absorbed in aluminum hydroxide. It is highly immunogenic.
- Age: Older than 2 years to 6 years: 720 Ud Ag ELISA. Over 6 years: 1.44 Ud Ag ELISA.
- In deltoid region.
- Strengthening the 6-12 months to implement the vaccine.
- Advantages: high immunogenicity 90% protection, few adverse reactions.
1. Adequate sanitary conditions.
2. Good personal hygiene.
3. Thorough washing of hands.
4. Sanitary disposal of feces.
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