What is mouth cancer?
Mouth cancer is a disease that destroys the region of the head and neck can infiltrate and invade tissues and spread to other areas via the lymphatic system and bloodstream, resulting in distant metastasis.
The World Health Organization, the International Association of Cancer Registries, reported that in the period between 1993 and 1997 identified 260 000 new cases of mouth cancer. This figure accounted for one third and two thirds developed countries to underdeveloped ones. For example, in Africa in 100 locations in different diagnoses, 40 were in the mouth cavity.
In United States 3 and 100 in Argentina between 3 and 5 in 100 people suffer from mouth cancer. In India, for example, mouth cancer reaches 40% of cancers in general, by the habit of chewing betel nut and other aggressor’s local foods that are predisposing to mouth mucosa for the development of lesions that may potentially become cancer.
An article published in "About News" in 2002 in the United States pointed out that cancer of the lip, mouth and pharynx produces about 8 000 deaths per year in that country, or nearly one per hour. In Cuba in 1990 killed 367 people by oral cancer, in 2002 there were a total of 475 cases in 2003 and killed 514 people at a rate of 4.6 per 100 000 inhabitants, so there is an increase of these lesions in country.
It is predicted that the incidence of cancer increases by 50% over the next 20 years. Oral cancer is a high death rate per number of cases in contrast to breast cancer, the cervical and cutaneous melanoma, hence the importance of early diagnosis and treatment.
Cuba is in the National Health Care for the Population Stomatologic. One objective of this program is aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality for oral cancer. This defines different activities as the annual review of the buccal complex, which allows early diagnosis of malignant lesions, premalignant or malignant potential in the population 15 years and older, as well as detecting and removing any elements that might alteration of the oral mucosa.
The accessibility of the oral cavity to the clinical examination, cytology and the low cost of these have facilitated the implementation of this program.
The importance of prevention in terms of buccal cancer concerns is that the origin of this disease is related to more than 75% with external actors and they are preventable if we move away from the cause. The main risk factors are alcohol and snuff, responsible for 75% of oral and pharyngeal cancers. So affects the excessive use of snuff and alcohol drinkers who consume more than a pack of cigarettes a day have 24 times more likely to contract the disease than those who do not abuse these substances.
Other causes of oral cancer can be Leucoplakia. The Leucoplakia is one of the oral conditions that can be precursors of cancer, often caused by smoking or chewing snuff. This benign condition) can occur anywhere in the mouth and only a biopsy can determine if there are precancerous or cancerous cells. 25% of Leucoplakia become cancer.
With the completion of this work we aim to evaluate the behavior of oral cancer diagnosed histologically in our institution over a period of 5 years, through the study of different variables.
Oral cancer is part of a group of cancers known as cancers of the head and neck. Oral cancer can become any part of the oral cavity or oropharynx. Most oral cancers begin in the tongue and the floor of the mouth. Almost all oral cancers begin in the flat cells (squamous cells) that cover the surfaces of the mouth, tongue and lips. These cancers are called squamous carcinomas of the cell.
When oral cancer is removed (metastasizes), usually travels through the lymphatic system. Cancer cells that incorporate the lymphatic system are carried out by the lymph, a clear liquid, watery. Cancer cells often appear first in nearby lymph nodes in the neck.
Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the neck, lungs, and the rest of the body. When this happens, the new tumor has the same kind of abnormal cells that the primary tumor. For example, if oral cancer is separated into the lungs, the cancer cells in the lungs are actually oral cancer cells. The disease is metastatic oral cancer, not lung cancer. Is treated as oral cancer, not lung cancer. Doctors sometimes call the new tumor "distant disease or metastatic.
The oral cavity is composed of the following:
- The lips, teeth and gums.
- The inner lining of the lips and cheeks (buccal mucosa).
- The floor of the mouth (under the tongue).
- The top of the mouth (hard palate).
- The small area behind the wisdom teeth.
- The oropharynx consists of the following:
- The posterior third of the tongue.
- The soft palate.
- The back of the throat.
Who is at risk of developing mouth cancer?
Doctors cannot always explain why one person develops mouth cancer and another does not. However, we know that this disease is not contagious. You can not take oral cancer from another person.
Research has shown that people with certain risk factors are more likely than others to develop oral cancer. A risk factor is anything that increases your chance of developing a disease.
The following are risk factors for oral cancer:
Snuff: The use of snuff accounts for the majority of oral cancers. Cigarettes, cigars or pipe smoking, and use the snuff chewing and dipping snuff are all linked to oral cancer. Use of other snuff products (such as bidis and kreteks) can also increase the risk of oral cancer. Heavy smokers who use snuff for a long time are at risk as possible. The risk is even higher for users of snuff who drink alcohol heavily. In fact, three out of four oral cancers occur in people who use alcohol, snuff, or alcohol and snuff.
Alcohol: It is more likely to drink alcohol in the development of oral cancer in those who drink. The risk increases with the amount of alcohol a person consumes. The risk increases even more if the person drinks alcohol and snuff use.
Sun: Cancer of the lip can be caused by sun exposure. With a balm or lotion that has a special Sunscreen will reduce the risk. Wearing a hat with a border can also block the sun's harmful rays. The risk of cancer of the lip increases if the person also smokes.
A personal history of cancer of the head and neck: The people who have had cancer of the head and neck is the increased risk of developing another primary cancer of the head and neck. Smoking increases this risk.
Stop snuff reduces the risk of oral cancer. Also, the stop reduces the chance that a person with oral cancer get a second cancer in the region of the head and neck. They also reduce smoke are advised to curb the risk of cancer of the lung, larynx, mouth, pancreas, the bladder, and esophagus. There are many resources to help smokers to stop:
The Cancer Information Service at 1-800-4-CANCER can talk with callers about ways to stop smoking and about groups that offer help to smokers who want to stop. Groups offer counseling in person or by telephone.
Also, your doctor or dentist can help you find a local program of smoking cessation.
Your doctor can tell you about medicine (bupropion) or replacement therapy for nicotine, which comes as a patch, a gum, lozenges, a nasal spray or an inhaler.
The section of the cancer institute national resource of information "is information about the Web site of smoking cessation federal government, http://www.smokefree.gov. For additional information, please read smoking stop smoking.
Some studies suggest that not eating enough fruits and vegetables may increase the chance of getting oral cancer. Scientists also are studying whether infections with certain viruses (such as human papillomavirus) are linked to oral cancer.
If you think you may be at risk should discuss this concern with your doctor or dentist. You may wish to ask for an appropriate screening schedule. Your health care team will tell you that probably do not use snuff and limiting your use of alcohol are the most important things you can do to prevent oral cancers. Also, if you spend much time in the sun, use a lip balm containing Sunscreen and wear a hat with an edge to help protect your lips.
Signs Of Oral Cancer
Your regular checkup is a good time for your dentist or doctor to check your entire mouth to see if there is evidence of cancer. Regular checkups can detect the early stages of oral cancer or conditions that can lead to oral cancer. Ask your doctor or dentist about checking the tissues in your mouth as part of your routine examination.
Common symptoms of oral cancer include:
- Patches inside your mouth or your lips are white, a mixture of red and white or red.
- White patches (leukoplakia) are the most common. White patches sometimes become ill.
- The mixed red and white patches (erythroleukoplakia) are more likely than white patches to become ill.
- Red patches (erythroplakia) are brightly colored, smooth areas that often become bad.
- A pain in your lip or in your mouth that does not cure
- Bleeding in your mouth
- Loose teeth
- Difficult or painful swallowing
- Dentures that are used with difficulty
- A lump in your neck
- An earache
Anyone with these symptoms should see a doctor or a dentist to be diagnosed and treat any problem as early as possible. Most often, these symptoms do not mean cancer. An infection or another problem can cause the same symptoms.
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