1* People have been making maps since the early ages. The earliest maps we know of were made by Babylonians and Egyptians over 40000 years ago. They were based on traveler’s descriptions of places they had seen.

Now the satellites orbit the earth and send back information about and pictures of places which no one has every visited. The whole earth has been mapped now showing every part of the Earth’s surface.

2* Mount Everest was named after Sir George Everest who was the surveyor-General of India from 1830 to 1840. He was the first person to survey the peak’s height accurately.

3* Indian’s first artificial satellite was named after Aryabhatta. He was born on March 21, 476, kusumoura, near Pataliputra. While people allover the world at that time believed that earth was flat and that sun revolved round the earth, he was the first to say that the earth was spherical and that it revolted round the sun. He calculated the length of a day and night as 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4.1 seconds. Modern scientists have calculated the same to be 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4.091 seconds. One of his greatest contributions is the Decimal system.

# Take a ball or a globe to represent the earth. With its help, explain to your partner the following facts about the earth.

a) Age: about 4550 million years.

b) Weight: about 6000 million millions tonnes.

c) Diameter: from pole to pole through the earth’s center-12,714 km. across the equator through the earth’s center- 12, 756 km.

d) Circumference: round the poles – 40, 000 km. round the equator- 40, 076 km.

e) Area of water: about 362 million sq km-71%.

f) Area of land: about 148 million sq-29%.

g) Average height of land: 840 meters above sea level.

h) Average depth of ocean: 3795 meters below sea level.

hight hill

4* we have `Ashoka Chakra’ in our National Flag and capital of Ashoka Pillar at Saranath as our National Emblem.

Ashoka ascended to the throne in 273 B.C. he was the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya founder of the Mauryan Empire. The most important event of this life was his conquest of Kalinga. In this war, there was huge loss of life, which distressed him so much that he gave up violence altogether and became a follower of Buddhism.

5* Jawaharlal Nehru letters to his famous daughter India Gandhi which he wrote from jail were compiled into a book called letters from a father to his daughter. The book is a treasure house of knowledge and every man should read this.